Podcast – The Importance of Annual Wellness and Preventative Veterinary Care with Dr. Katie Carter from River Road Veterinary Hospital

< Click to Listen to Podcast >

In this episode of The Woof Meow Show from September 8th, 2018, Don talks with Dr. Katie Carter of the River Road Veterinary Hospital in Orrington about the importance of annual wellness veterinary care for pets. We discuss what Katie looks for in an annual exam of a cat and dog as well as why some pets may need to be seen more than annually. We also talk about how to know when to seek preventative care outside of an annual visit and the benefits of having a regular relationship with your pet’s veterinarian.

You can hear The Woof Meow Show on Z62 Retro Radio, AM620, and WKIT HD3 at 9 AM on Saturday. If you are not near a radio, listen on your computer at http://www.wzonthepulse.com or your smartphone or tablet with the free WZON 620 AM app. A podcast of the show is typically posted immediately after the show and can be downloaded at www.woofmeowshow.com and the Apple iTunes store.

< Click to Listen to Podcast >

Contact Info

Dr. Katie Carter
River Road Veterinary Hospital
210 River Road, Orrington, ME 04416

(207) 825-2105

http://riverroadvet.com/

https://www.facebook.com/riverroadvet/

 

Recommended Resources

Podcasts from The Woof Meow Show ( http://www.woofmeowshow.com )

The Importance of Wellness and Preventative Care with Dr. Dave Cloutier of the Veazie Veterinary Clinichttp://traffic.libsyn.com/woofmeowshow/WoofMeowShow-2014-02-15-The_Importance_of_Wellness-Preventative_Care_with_Dr_Dave_Cloutier.mp3

The Importance of Annual Exams with Dr. Mark Hanks of Kindred Spirits Veterinary Clinichttp://traffic.libsyn.com/woofmeowshow/WoofMeowShow-2011-02-05-Why_Annual_Exams_are_so_Important_w-Dr_Mark_Hanks.mp3

 

©8SEP18, Donald J. Hanson, All Rights Reserved
< Click for Copyright and Use Policy >

Shared Blog Post – New Canine Vaccine Rules Rolled Out – Can You Guess What They Now Endorse? by Karen Becker, DVM

In this article from December 20th, veterinarian Karen Becker discusses the 2017 Canine Vaccination Guidelines released by the American Animal Hospital Association. I have recently posted articles on this same topic by Dr. Nancy Kay and Dr. Jean Dodds.

Dr. Becker notes that the significant changes in this AAHA document are:

  • There are no notable changes to core vaccine recommendations (distemper, parvo, adenovirus and rabies), except that the parainfluenza virus is now considered an optional core according to the AAHA
  • As always, my (Dr. Becker’s) canine vaccine protocol differs from the AAHA guidelines, especially with regard to non-core vaccines
  • For the first time, the AAHA acknowledges that titer tests are useful in determining dogs’ immunity to distemper, parvo and adenovirus

Dr. Becker, Dr. Kay, and Dr. Dodds all recommend titer testing. It is something we have done with our dogs for many years. An argument some use against titer testing is its cost. In her article, Dr. Becker discusses a program through Kansas State University which can make titer testing more economical for both you and your veterinarian. You can read more about that at – http://www.protectthepets.com/uploads/1/0/8/0/108023613/for_your_veterinarianksdl_detailed_instructions.pdf

You can read Dr. Becker’s entire article and her recommended vaccine protocol at – https://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets/archive/2017/12/20/canine-vaccine-guidelines.aspx?

Green Acres Kennel Shop accepts titer tests when recommended by your veterinarian as a safer and healthier alternative to revaccination.

You can read Dr. Kay’s article at – http://speakingforspot.com/blog/2017/11/05/updated-canine-vaccination-guidelines/

You can read Dr. Dodd’s article at –  http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/11/06/shared-blog-post-aaha-vaccination-guidelines-2017-for-dogs-a-review-by-dr-jean-dodds/

You can read the entire 2017 Canine Vaccination Guidelines document at – https://www.aaha.org/guidelines/canine_vaccination_guidelines.aspx

A PDF version of a summary of 2017 Canine Vaccination Guidelines document can be downloaded and printed at – https://www.aaha.org/public_documents/guidelines/vaccination_recommendation_for_general_practice_table.pdf

 

Recommended Resources

Articles on Don’s Blog ( http://www.words-woofs-meows.com )

Shared Blog Post – AAHA Vaccination Guidelines 2017 for Dogs – A Review by Dr. Jean Dodds – http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/11/06/shared-blog-post-aaha-vaccination-guidelines-2017-for-dogs-a-review-by-dr-jean-dodds/

Shared Blog Post – Updated Canine Vaccination Guidelines by Nancy Kay, DVM – http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/11/06/shared-blog-post-updated-canine-vaccination-guidelines-by-nancy-kay-dvm/

Vaccinations–Interviews with Dr. Ron Schultzhttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2013/07/15/vaccinations-interviews-with-dr-ron-schultz/

How to Report Adverse Reactions to Vaccines, Drugs, Devices, Foods, and Flea and Tick Products – http://bit.ly/ReportAdverseReactions

Complementary Medicine – Tikken – Vaccines, Aggression & Homeopathy — http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2014/10/06/complementary-medicine-tikken-vaccines-aggression-homeopathy/

Shared Blog Post – It’s Time to Put a Stop to the Mindless Over-Vaccination of Petshttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/07/05/shared-blog-post-its-time-to-put-a-stop-to-the-mindless-over-vaccination-of-pets/

Podcasts from The Woof Meow Show
( http://www.woofmeowshow.com )

Podcast – A Holistic Approach to Vaccines for Dogs – Part 1 w/Dr. Judy Herman – http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/07/15/podcast-a-holistic-approach-to-vaccines-for-dogs-part-1-wdr-judy-herman/

Podcast – A Holistic Approach to Vaccines for Dogs – Part 2 w/Dr. Judy Herman – http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/07/22/podcast-a-holistic-approach-to-vaccines-for-dogs-part-2-wdr-judy-herman/

Vaccinations- Why they are important, Core Vaccines & Vaccination Schedules w/Dr. Ronald Schultz (June 22nd, 2013) – http://traffic.libsyn.com/woofmeowshow/WoofMeowShow-2013-06-22-Vaccinations-1.mp3

Vaccinations, Titer Testing, Non-Core Vaccines and Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex with Dr. Ron Schultz (June 29th, 2013) – http://traffic.libsyn.com/woofmeowshow/WoofMeowShow-2013-06-29-Vaccinations-2.mp3

Vaccinations– Non-Core Vaccines for Cats and Adverse Reactions to Vaccines with Dr. Ron Schultz (July 6th, 2013) – http://traffic.libsyn.com/woofmeowshow/WoofMeowShow-2013-07-06-Vaccinations-3.mp3

Vaccinations – The Rabies Challenge Fund with Dr. Ron Schultz (July 13th, 2013) – http://traffic.libsyn.com/woofmeowshow/WoofMeowShow-2013-07-13-Vaccinations-Rabies_Challenge_Fund.mp3

Podcast – Holistic and Complementary Wellness for Pets – Our Personal Journey — http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2016/10/08/podcast-holistic-and-complementary-wellness-for-pets-our-personal-journey/

Shared Blog Post – AAHA Vaccination Guidelines 2017 for Dogs – A Review by Dr. Jean Dodds

Veterinarian Dr. Jean Dodds reviews the newly published 2017 Canine Vaccination Guidelines released by the American Animal Hospital Association. Dr. Dodds recommendations somewhat from the AAHA guidelines stating “Overall, I applaud the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) for its transparency, website language, layout and tools that are very pet companion caregiver friendly. I particularly like the Lifestyle-Based Vaccine Calculator that helps pet parents determine if their pets need a lifestyle vaccination.”

Dr. Dodds also notes “The most significant change AAHA has made is on its position on antibody titer testing. Bear in mind that it is not a recommendation or an endorsement of titer testing in lieu of the three-year vaccination series of distemper, parvovirus and adenovirus. If this were the case, titers would be listed on AAHA’s official protocol. However, it is an admission by AAHA that titer tests are alternatives to vaccination. The proof is on the website. In-depth diagnostic web pages are provided to veterinarians. Additionally, the pet caregiver section mentions the titer test alternative on the main vaccination guidelines webpage.” [Emphasis Added]

Green Acres Kennel Shop has accepted titer tests when recommended by your veterinarian as a safer and healthier alternative to revaccination for many years and we also laud their new enlightened position.

You can read Dr. Dodd’s article at – https://drjeandoddspethealthresource.tumblr.com/post/166919932761/aaha-vaccination-guidelines-2017-for-dogs-review#

You can read the entire 2017 Canine Vaccination Guidelines document at – https://www.aaha.org/guidelines/canine_vaccination_guidelines.aspx

A PDF version of a summary of 2017 Canine Vaccination Guidelines document can be downloaded and printed at – https://www.aaha.org/public_documents/guidelines/vaccination_recommendation_for_general_practice_table.pdf

 

Recommended Resources

Articles on Don’s Blog ( http://www.words-woofs-meows.com )

 

Shared Blog Post – Updated Canine Vaccination Guidelines by Nancy Kay, DVM – http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/11/06/shared-blog-post-updated-canine-vaccination-guidelines-by-nancy-kay-dvm/

Vaccinations–Interviews with Dr. Ron Schultzhttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2013/07/15/vaccinations-interviews-with-dr-ron-schultz/

How to Report Adverse Reactions to Vaccines, Drugs, Devices, Foods, and Flea and Tick Products – http://bit.ly/ReportAdverseReactions

Complementary Medicine – Tikken – Vaccines, Aggression & Homeopathy — http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2014/10/06/complementary-medicine-tikken-vaccines-aggression-homeopathy/

Shared Blog Post – It’s Time to Put a Stop to the Mindless Over-Vaccination of Petshttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/07/05/shared-blog-post-its-time-to-put-a-stop-to-the-mindless-over-vaccination-of-pets/

Podcasts from The Woof Meow Show ( http://www.woofmeowshow.com )

Podcast – A Holistic Approach to Vaccines for Dogs – Part 1 w/Dr. Judy Herman – http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/07/15/podcast-a-holistic-approach-to-vaccines-for-dogs-part-1-wdr-judy-herman/

Podcast – A Holistic Approach to Vaccines for Dogs – Part 2 w/Dr. Judy Herman – http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/07/22/podcast-a-holistic-approach-to-vaccines-for-dogs-part-2-wdr-judy-herman/

Vaccinations- Why they are important, Core Vaccines & Vaccination Schedules w/Dr. Ronald Schultz (June 22nd, 2013) – http://traffic.libsyn.com/woofmeowshow/WoofMeowShow-2013-06-22-Vaccinations-1.mp3

Vaccinations, Titer Testing, Non-Core Vaccines and Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex with Dr. Ron Schultz (June 29th, 2013) – http://traffic.libsyn.com/woofmeowshow/WoofMeowShow-2013-06-29-Vaccinations-2.mp3

Vaccinations– Non-Core Vaccines for Cats and Adverse Reactions to Vaccines with Dr. Ron Schultz (July 6th, 2013) – http://traffic.libsyn.com/woofmeowshow/WoofMeowShow-2013-07-06-Vaccinations-3.mp3

Vaccinations – The Rabies Challenge Fund with Dr. Ron Schultz (July 13th, 2013) – http://traffic.libsyn.com/woofmeowshow/WoofMeowShow-2013-07-13-Vaccinations-Rabies_Challenge_Fund.mp3

Podcast – Holistic and Complementary Wellness for Pets – Our Personal Journey — http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2016/10/08/podcast-holistic-and-complementary-wellness-for-pets-our-personal-journey/

Shared Blog Post – It’s Time to Put a Stop to the Mindless Over-Vaccination of Pets

Shared Blog Post – It’s Time to Put a Stop to the Mindless Over-Vaccination of Pets

In this June 25th post, veterinarian Dr. Karen Becker interviews Dr. John Robb, a Connecticut veterinarian who has become known worldwide for his fight against profiteering and over-vaccination in veterinary medicine. If you are concerned about over vaccination of your pet, shop at Pet Smart, use a Banfield Veterinary Clinic, or feed any pet food made by Mars/Waltham, you will want to watch this video or read this article. – http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets/archive/2017/06/25/pets-over-vaccination.aspx

Recommended Resources

Articles on Don’s Blog (http://www.words-woofs-meows.com)

Vaccinations–Interviews with Dr. Ron Schultzhttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2013/07/15/vaccinations-interviews-with-dr-ron-schultz/

Complementary Medicine – Tikken – Vaccines, Aggression & Homeopathy — http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2014/10/06/complementary-medicine-tikken-vaccines-aggression-homeopathy/

 Podcasts from The Woof Meow Show (http://www.woofmeowshow.com)

Vaccinations- Why they are important, Core Vaccines & Vaccination Schedules w/Dr. Ronald Schultz (June 22nd, 2013) http://traffic.libsyn.com/woofmeowshow/WoofMeowShow-2013-06-22-Vaccinations-1.mp3

Vaccinations, Titer Testing, Non-Core Vaccines and Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex with Dr. Ron Schultz (June 29th, 2013) http://traffic.libsyn.com/woofmeowshow/WoofMeowShow-2013-06-29-Vaccinations-2.mp3

Vaccinations- Non-Core Vaccines for Cats and Adverse Reactions to Vaccines with Dr. Ron Schultz (July 6th, 2013)http://traffic.libsyn.com/woofmeowshow/WoofMeowShow-2013-07-06-Vaccinations-3.mp3

Vaccinations – The Rabies Challenge Fund with Dr. Ron Schultz (July 13th, 2013)http://traffic.libsyn.com/woofmeowshow/WoofMeowShow-2013-07-13-Vaccinations-Rabies_Challenge_Fund.mp3

 

©5JUL17, Donald J. Hanson, All Rights Reserved
< Click for Copyright and Use Policy >

HEALTH ALERT – Important new from the Rabies Challenge Fund!

Important new from the Rabies Challenge Fund. Let’s hope that governments throughout the world do the right thing and accept Rabies titer results instead of requiring additional, yet unnecessary and often detrimental revaccination.

Recently updated testimony/statement of Dr. Ronald Schultz on rabies vaccination and rabies titers. “Canine studies funded by The Rabies Challenge Fund and performed in collaboration with the University of Georgia have confirmed that dogs that have a detectable rabies antibody titer are resistant to disease caused by experimental challenge with virulent rabies virus for as long as 7 years after two doses of rabies vaccine.”

FMIhttps://media.wix.com/ugd/03057b_baf85dd47501428aa6f238d71a177d91.pdf

Especially for New Puppy Parents

Tikken on Don's Lap
Tikken on Don’s Lap

< Updated 08JUN20 >

< http://bit.ly/EspcNewPuppyParents >

If you have a new puppy that is 8 to 16 weeks of age, this is the article you want. If you have a dog older than 12 weeks of age, you may also wish to check out this article – http://bit.ly/EspNewDogParents

A puppy does not come with a user’s manual; at least none that are complete and accurate. This article and series of links to other articles and podcasts are meant to get you started on learning what you need to know about caring for your puppy.  However, it does not take the place of enrolling yourself, and your puppy in a puppy headstart or kindergarten class that is under the direction of a professional dog trainer, accredited by an independent certification body and that is committed to pain-free, force-free, and pain-free training. If you prefer to absorb information by listening, rather than reading, you may want to listen to these three podcasts.

Podcast – Especially for New Puppy Parents – Part 1http://bit.ly/WfMw-Esp_Pups1

Podcast – Especially for New Puppy Parents – Part 2http://bit.ly/WfMw-Esp_Pups2

Podcast – Especially for New Puppy Parents – Part 3http://bit.ly/WfMw-Esp_Pups3


A new puppy can be a great addition to your family, but they will also require some work on your part. You will very likely have questions about; housetraining, socialization, play biting and nipping, chewing, training methods, wellness exams, nutrition, vaccinations, babies and dogs, kids and dogs and more. This post includes links to articles and podcasts that address the most common questions people ask me when they are thinking of getting a new puppy or that have just added one to their home. While we strongly encourage everyone to attend a Puppy Headstart class while the puppy is between 8 and 16 weeks of age, these materials will provide you with some additional information. You can read or listen to them in any order you choose; however, I believe you will get the most benefit if you go through them in the order that they are listed.

My first word of advice; “patience.” It is very easy to want the ideal puppy immediately, but just as “Rome was not built in a day,” Your puppy will not be the perfect companion in a week, nor in all likelihood in a month. Training is a process, and as such it takes time. Yes, there will times you may become frustrated, but when you look back in a year you will realize it was a precious time for you and your pup, one filled with learning and fun!

I encourage you to read the following shared blog post, all about patience, by dog trainer Nancy Tanner. Read it, print it, and then post it on your refrigerator, or somewhere in your home where it is close at hand anytime you are feeling frustrated with your puppy. –

Shared Blog Post – the misunderstanding of time by Nancy Tannerhttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2016/11/16/shared-blog-post-the-misunderstanding-of-time-by-nancy-tanner/ OR http://bit.ly/Patience-Dogs

Enrolling yourself and your puppy in a reward-based dog training class designed by a Certified Professional Dog Trainer is the best thing you can do for you and your dog. Not all trainers and dog training classes are equal. Because dog training is currently a non-regulated and non-licensed profession the quality of instruction and practices used can vary widely, sometimes into the inhumane. The following article will provide you with information on what to look for in a dog trainer and dog training facility.

FMI – How to Choose a Dog Trainer http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/01/08/how-to-choose-a-dog-trainer/ OR
http://bit.ly/HowToChooseADogTrainer

What You Need to Know BEFORE You Start Training –    https://bit.ly/BeforeYouTrainYourDog

Do not try to teach your puppy everything at once. In class, we will teach you certain behaviors, in a specific order, for a reason; to make training easier.

During the critical socialization period, between 8 and 16 weeks of age, it is far more important to work on planning and appropriately socializing and habituating your dog than it is to teach them to shake or any other behavior. This is a limited period, and you want to make the most of it. Inadequate or inappropriate socialization is a common reason dogs develop behavioral problems such as aggression and anxiety.

FMI – Puppy Socialization and Habituationhttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2015/06/27/dog-behavior-puppy-socialization-and-habituation/
 OR http://bit.ly/SocializationPuppy

If you are already having problems with your dog guarding food and other items, stealing things, or growling, make an appointment with us for a Help Now! session as soon as possible. Punishment in any form will likely make these behaviors worse and could result in someone being bitten.

FMI – What Should I Dog When My Dog Does Not Let Me Take Something They Have Stolen and Snaps or Tries to Bite Me?http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/08/20/what-should-i-do-when-my-dog-does-not-let-me-take-something-they-have-stolen-and-snaps-or-tries-to-bite-me/
OR http://bit.ly/StealGuardGrowlSnap

FMI – What Should I Do When My Dog Growls?http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2015/07/18/canine-behavior-what-should-i-do-when-my-dog-growls/ 
OR http://bit.ly/DogGrowls

Dogs and children both need training and supervision to learn how to appropriately and safely interact with one another. Dogs and children will not automatically get along. If you do not have children, your dog will still need to be socialized with children and learn how to interact with them. If you have children and a dog, you will need to spend time working with both. I highly recommend the book A Kids’ Comprehensive Guide to Speaking Dog! by Niki Tudge. You will discover some things that you probably did not know about dogs while learning how to teach your children about interacting with your dog and any other dog they may meet.

FMI – Book Review – A Kids’ Comprehensive Guide to Speaking Dog! by Niki Tudgehttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2018/01/10/book-review-a-kids-comprehensive-guide-to-speaking-dog-by-niki-tudge/
OR http://bit.ly/BkRvw-KidsGuide-Tudge

Think carefully about what you teach your puppy; intentionally or unintentionally. Un-training a behavior takes a whole lot more time and energy than training a behavior. A trick like “shake” is cute, but think long and hard if you want a dog that will always be trying to get every person they see to shake, even when they have muddy paws.

If there are multiple people that will be interacting with your dog, discuss what cues, visual and verbal, that you will use for specific behaviors so that you are all being consistent. Do not be in a hurry to add a visual (hand signal) or a verbal cue to a behavior. We do not start using a cue until we are confident that the dog understands the behavior in multiple contexts and environments. If you start using the cue to soon, you may need to change it. We will talk about that more in class.

If you have questions that just will not wait until class starts, contact us and make an appointment for a Help Now! session.

Blog Posts

Words-woofs-Meows-High Res with TM 755x800The blog posts listed below will all be very useful for anyone thinking about getting a new puppy or for those of you that just added a puppy to your family.

How to Choose a Dog Trainer – http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/01/08/how-to-choose-a-dog-trainer/ OR http://bit.ly/HowToChooseADogTrainer

Themes in Puppy Training

Themes in Puppy Training – What You Need to Know BEFORE You Start Training – https://bit.ly/BeforeYouTrainYourDog

Puppy Socialization and Habituationhttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2015/06/27/dog-behavior-puppy-socialization-and-habituation/
OR http://bit.ly/SocializationPuppy

Things I Wish I Had Known Before I Started Training Dogs – Gus, the Dominance Myth, An Alpha Roll, and a Damaged Relationshiphttp://bit.ly/Things-Gus-Dominance

Things I Wish I Had Known Before I Selected My First Dog – Aversives are Unnecessary and Counter-Productive When Training A Dog – Part 1 – WWM-JAN2019 http://bit.ly/Things-Aversives-1

Things I Wish I Had Known Before I Selected My First Dog – Aversives are Unnecessary and Counter-Productive When Training A Dog – Part 2 – WWM-FEB2019 –  http://bit.ly/Things-Aversives-2

Dog Behavior – Dominance: Reality or Myth –  http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2015/06/20/dog-behavior-dominance-reality-or-myth/  OR http://bit.ly/Dominance-RealityorMyth

The Unintended Consequences of Shock Collarshttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2013/08/05/dogs-the-unintended-consequences-of-shock-collar/

Introduction to Canine Communicationhttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2016/01/16/dog-behavior-introduction-to-canine-communication/

Jaws & Paws

Play Biting – Biting and Bite Thresholds –   http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2012/01/16/dog-training-biting-and-bite-thresholds/

Play Biting – Help! My Puppy’s A Land Shark!http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2015/03/01/canine-behavior-help-my-puppys-a-land-shark/

 

Puddles & Piles

Housetraining http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2014/02/16/housetraining/
OR http://bit.ly/HousetrainingYourDog

Alone Training – Preventing separation anxiety – Teaching your dog to cope with being alonehttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2016/03/14/dog-training-preventing-separation-anxiety-teaching-your-dog-to-cope-with-being-alone/

Grabs & Nabs

Chewinghttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2013/03/15/dog-training-chewing/

The Power of Food3

Teaching the ATTENTION or LOOK Behaviorhttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2016/04/04/dog-training-teaching-the-attention-or-look-behavior/

Canine Nutrition

Things I Wish I Had Known… The Importance of What I Feed My Pets – – WWM-MAR2019 – http://bit.ly/Things-Nutrition-1

GAKS Philosophy on Pet Nutrition http://bit.ly/GAKS_Nut_Phil

Pet Foods We Offer At Green Acres Kennel Shop http://bit.ly/GAKS_PetFood_Brands

Pet Nutrition – Which Companies Are Behind Your Pet’s Food?  – http://bit.ly/PetFoodComp

Pet Nutrition: Some Myths and Facts – Part 1 – My story with Gus – Maine Dog Magazine – Winter 2017 http://bit.ly/Gus-Nutrition

Pet Nutrition – What Should I Feed My Pet? http://bit.ly/What-Should-I-Feed-My-Pet

Pet Nutrition – What Do You Feed Your Dog? – WWM-JUN2016 – http://bit.ly/WhatDoYouFeedYourDog

Pet Nutrition – Should I Feed My Pet A Raw Diet? http://bit.ly/ShouldIFeedMyPetARawDiet

Pet Nutrition – The Science and Dogma of Pet Nutrition with Dr. Richard Patton with link to 1 hour video http://bit.ly/Video-Dr-Richard-Patton

Podcast – Pet Nutrition with Dr. Richard Pattonhttp://bit.ly/DrPatton-Podcast

Podcast – Pet Fooled – A Look Inside A Questionable Industry with Kohl Harringtonhttp://bit.ly/WfMw-Pet-Fooled

Pet Nutrition – Why Rotating Diets Makes Sense http://bit.ly/DietRotation

Pet Nutrition – The Wisdom of Rotating Your Pets Diet – Part 1 http://bit.ly/DietRotation1-30JUL19

Pet Nutrition – The Wisdom of Rotating Your Pets Diet – Part 2 http://bit.ly/DietRotation2

Podcast – Is Feeding A Grain-Free Food to Our Dogs Dangerous?, with Linda Case, MS – http://bit.ly/Podcast-FDA-Grain-Free-LindaCase-29SEP18

An Intro to the Recall Behavior & Walking Politely

Teaching Your Puppy to Come When Called – Starting Points – http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/07/10/dog-training-teaching-your-puppy-to-come-when-called-starting-points/

How Do I Get My Dog to Walk Politely Instead of Pulling on the Leash? – http://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2017/04/27/dog-training-how-do-i-get-my-dog-to-walk-politely-instead-of-pulling-on-the-leash/

Dogs and Children

Recommended Resources on Kids & Dogshttp://bit.ly/GAKS_Kids_DogsResources

Book Review – A Kids’ Comprehensive Guide to Speaking Dog! by Niki Tudgehttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2018/01/10/book-review-a-kids-comprehensive-guide-to-speaking-dog-by-niki-tudge/

Book Review – Living with Kids and Dogs…Without Losing Your Mind: A Parent’s Guide to Controlling the Chaos by Colleen Pelarhttp://www.greenacreskennel.com/blog/2018/01/10/book-review-living-with-kids-and-dogswithout-losing-your-mind-a-parents-guide-to-controlling-the-chaos-by-colleen-pelar/

©08JUN20, Donald J. Hanson, All Rights Reserved <Click for Copyright and Use Policy>

Vaccinations–Interviews with Dr. Ron Schultz

Vaccines are incredibly important in preventing infectious diseases in both animals and people. However, they can also cause life threatening adverse reactions. This interview discussed the importance of vaccines and how to use them in the safest manner possible.

In Memory of Tikken 300x300I first learned of Dr. Ron Schultz sometime between the spring of 2000 and the spring of 2002. Paula and I had started reading everything we could about vaccinations, especially adverse reactions due to over vaccination, because our Golden Retriever Tikken had started exhibiting some severe behavioral changes in the spring of 2000. Her aggression towards other dogs and subsequent obsessive-compulsive shadow and light chasing began shortly after her third Rabies vaccination. Her first Rabies vaccination was in 1997 when she was a puppy. Her second occurred when she was one year old in 1998 and the third occurred in 2000. At the time Maine law required revaccination for Rabies every two years, even though the Rabies vaccine was labeled as offering immunity for three years.

We were not initially aware that Tikken’s behavioral changes were a result of a vaccine reaction.  We consulted with our local veterinarian who provided treatment and then the veterinary behavior clinic at Tufts University when we saw no improvement. When there was still no improvement we consulted with an applied animal behaviorist in Wisconsin who suggested we explore a homeopathic treatment for Tikken’s disease. In the spring of 2001 Tikken was examined by Dr. Judy Herman of the Animal Wellness Center in Augusta, ME and diagnosed as having had a reaction to the Rabies vaccine. She was subsequently treated and cured for a Rabies miasm by Dr. Herman.

As a result of Tikken’s illness, Paula and I started educating ourselves about vaccines and I came upon the following quote, by Dr. Schultz, from a veterinary text book.

A practice that was started many years ago and that lacks scientific validity or verification is annual revaccination. Almost without exception there is no immunologic requirement for annual revaccination. Immunity to viruses persists for years in the life of the animal. – Veterinary immunologist Ronald Schultz and Tom Phillips make the following statement in Current Veterinary Therapy, volume XI, pp202-206, 1992.

It was apparent that experts in the field felt that the annual vaccination of our pets was not necessary. Knowing the types of reactions that vaccinations could cause, we continued to learn everything we could about vaccines. We also started to share that information with our clients at Green Acres Kennel Shop when I wrote the article Rethinking Annual Vaccinations for our April 2002 newsletter, Paw Prints.

On February 7th, 2013 Tikken crossed the rainbow bridge at 16 years of age. While she had mostly recovered from the behavioral issues resulting from her adverse reaction to the Rabies vaccine, she was never the same confident, anxiety free dog that she was pre-reaction. Her veterinarians have advised us that the two immune mediated diseases (hypothyroid disease and golden retriever uveitis syndrome) she later developed were also probably related to the Rabies vacation and her genetics. The vaccine triggered an abnormal immune response which affected these other organ systems.

Upon Tikken’s passing Paula and I were looking for an appropriate way to remember her and decided to commit to educating others by sharing Tikken’s story and to do a fundraiser for The Rabies Challenge Fund (http://www.rabieschallengefund.org/ and https://www.facebook.com/pages/The-Rabies-Challenge-Fund/119106981159?fref=ts). This interview and the four resulting Woof Meow Shows with Dr. Schultz are part of that educational effort.

The following are notes, not a transcript, from an interview with Dr. Ron Schultz, Professor and Chair of the Department of Pathobiological Sciences at the School of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Schultz is considered to be one of the foremost experts on immunology and vaccinations for pets. The interview occurred on Friday, May 3rd 2013 and was broadcast as four separate editions of The Woof Meow Show on the Voice of Maine WVOM, 103.9FM & WVQM 101.3FM on four subsequent weekends.

  • June 22nd and 23rd – Vaccinations- Why they are important, Core Vaccines & Vaccination Schedules <click to listen>
  • June 29th and 30th  –  Vaccinations, Titer Testing, Non-Core Vaccines and Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex <click to listen>
  • July 6th and 7th –  Vaccinations- Non-Core Vaccines for Cats and Adverse Reactions to Vaccines <click to listen>
  • July 13th and 14th  – Vaccinations – The Rabies Challenge Fund. <click to listen>

The last show has actually aired twice. These four shows have been our most popular podcasts to-date with over 2800 downloads as of October 14th, 2013. All four shows are also available for download at the Apple iTunes store and at http://woofmeowshow.libsyn.com/webpage

Thanks to the generosity of 53 clients, friends and colleagues we were able to raise a total of $1240 with our fundraiser for The Rabies Challenge Fund from September 1st through October 5th. As promised we matched that generosity dollar for dollar and have sent a check to the Rabies Challenge Fund for $2,535 as a memoriam for our Golden Retriever, Tikken.

Thank you to all of you that contributed; Ann Murray, Anonymous, Barbara Cyr, Becky Brimley, Belinda Doliber, Brent & Michele Slater, Carol Higgins Taylor and Juanita Taylor, Carolyn Clark, Chris & Jane Flieller, Cindy Black, Coastside Bioresources, Colleen Pelar, Cynthia Bentley, Cynthia Farrell, Dee Hoult (Applause Your Paws), Doreen & Ken Dybevik, Gary  & Deb Mickalowski, Ginger & David Ward-Green, Heidi Riggs, Helen Musselwhite, Jan & David Pilotte, Jen Shryock (Family Paws), Jill Marple, John Hamer & Anne Marie Storey, Dr. Judith Herman, Julie Perkins, Juliette Humiston, Kathy Klein, Ken & Peggy Grant, Laura Van Dyne, Linda Mosely, Links Online Marketing, LLC (Kristy & Ken Kimball), Maina Fernald, Margaret Hall, Maria Staples, Marjorie Speck, Michael Puls, Michelle Sirois, Nanette Belenger, Patrick Lyons, Ralph Carr, Rhonda & Rick Hutchins, Richard & Cristanna Cook, Rick and Jill Marston, Sandra Payne, Sarah Baldwin, Sherry Pfister, Susan Scammon, Susan Witt, Teoti Anderson and Vanessa Field.

The Shows

Vaccinations (22JUN13-23JUN13)
Why they are important, Core Vaccines & Vaccination Schedules

Core Vaccines

Vaccines are important because they can prevent some very serious vaccine preventable diseases that can make animals very sick and can even kill. Since the veterinary profession started to reexamine vaccines in the 2000’s, they have come up with the term “core vaccines” to identify the vaccinations that all animals should have. These vaccines are so effective that they will prevent the disease in all appropriately vaccinated animals.

According to Dr. Schultz, dogs should receive the following core vaccines Canine Distemper Virus (CDV), Canine Parvovirus (CPV-2), Canine Adenovirus-1 (Infectious Canine Hepatitis [ICH])/Canine Adenovirus-2 and Rabies Virus (RV). The latter is not only important for the dog, but because it is usually fatal and can be transmitted to humans, it is considered a public health issue.

Dr. Schultz recommends that cats receive the following core vaccines; Feline Parvovirus (Panleukopenia) Virus (formerly known as feline distemper distemper)FPV, Feline Calicivirus (respiratory) (FCV), Feline Herpes Type 1 Virus (FHV-1), and Rabies Virus (RV).

Vaccine Schedules

Since the late 1990’s there has been a big change in the recommendations for how often our pets should be vaccinated. For years vaccinations were given annually as part of a pet’s annual wellness exam. This changed with the eventual recognition that pets were being over vaccinated, which in turn in some cases was causing pets to become very ill or to even die.

Dr. Schultz indicates that dogs should not receive any vaccinations before they are six weeks of age. This is because a puppy/kitten gets some immunity through antibodies in their mother’s milk. Those antibodies help protect the puppy/kitten from disease but also will interfere with vaccinations. This is why puppies and kittens receive multiple vaccinations. Although the antibodies in the milk interfere with vaccinations, under no circumstances should you prevent the puppy/kitten from getting these antibodies.

Recommended vaccination schedule: Start at 8-10 weeks, give a second dose 3 to 4 weeks later and then a final dose an additional 3 to 4 weeks later, making sure it is at 14 to 16 weeks of age. By then the mother’s antibodies will not interfere with the vaccinations.

After these initial puppy/kitten vaccinations, Dr. Schultz recommends doing a titer test or revaccination when the puppy/kitten is a year of age and then revaccinating or re-titering no more frequently than every 3 years.

Some breeds (Rottweiler’s and Doberman’s) do not develop an immune response as easily, especially to the canine parvo vaccine. However, studies have demonstrated that if that last dose is at 14-16 weeks of age at least 98% of puppies will get immunized, regardless of breed.

What Determines How Long A Vaccine is Effective?

It’s the specific vaccine and the disease it was designed to prevent that determines how long it will confer immunity. All of the core vaccines, except Rabies, are modified live vaccines. This means that they actually must infect the animal in order to have an immunization effect and therefore must contain an attenuated version of the actual virus. The immunity that is conferred by this type of vaccine, just like the core vaccines for children (measles, mumps rubella), provide long term immunity because they are live, replicating viruses, much like the immunity one would get if one were actually infected with and recovered from those diseases. Immunity conferred by these vaccines is typically many years to a lifetime. If you get measles or are vaccinated for measles as a child you will not get it again anytime in your life, even if you are exposed. That is the same with distemper, parvo, and the other core animal vaccines. That’s why back in the 1970’s Dr. Schultz and others started questioning the need for annual revaccinations of our pets. In other words, for the core vaccines that include a modified live virus, once a pet has had their puppy series and their revaccination at one year of age, they should be immune for life and should NOT require further vaccination. This is why instead of revaccinating annually Dr. Schultz recommends that we only consider revaccination every three or more years. His personal preference is to do titer testing every three years. A disadvantage of titers is they can be more expensive than revaccinating, but it is much safer to do a titer because while the adverse reactions to vaccines are fairly small they still can occur. Plus it’s just not good medical practice to give a vaccine that’s not needed.

Rabies Vaccinations

Titers can be done for Rabies but due to legal and public health requirements, revaccination for Rabies is still required every three years. Those legal requirements don’t necessarily follow science or good vaccination practice, but they are the law of the land.

All states in the US now have a three year Rabies vaccination law. The initial Rabies vaccination should not occur before 12 weeks of age. The second vaccination should occur a year later and any subsequent revaccination for Rabies should not occur more often than every three years. If you travel internationally with your dog, other laws may apply. I had a friend who moved out of the USA and had to have her dog vaccinated for Rabies three times in a few months in order to be admitted to the country where she moved. The dog later developed hyperthyroid disease which is a possible vaccine reaction.

 

Vaccinations (29JUN13-30JUN13)
Titer Testing, Non-Core Vaccines and Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex

Titer Testing

Antibody titer testing is a good alternative to revaccinating every three years and should be considered when you bring your pet in for an annual wellness exam. An annual wellness exam is a very important part of any pet’s ongoing veterinary care. Additionally, some of the non-core vaccines must be given on an annual basis because they are only effective for a year.

Dr. Schultz recommends titers for Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) and Canine Parvovirus (CPV-2). Titers are generally not needed for Canine Adenovirus-1 (Infectious Canine Hepatitis [ICH])/Canine Adenovirus-2) if you get positive results for distemper and parvo. Titers don’t need to be done more often than every three years.

Unfortunately there is confusion in the veterinary community as to how to use and interpret a titer test. A common misunderstanding about titering is that it is only a snapshot that indicates an animal’s immunity at a specific moment in time and that it does not indicate if your pet will still be immune in three months. Dr. Schultz indicates that is not the case at all. With regard to Distemper, Parvo and Adeno, a positive titer indicates immunity for life unless the animal contracts a severe disease that suppresses their immune system.

Non-Core Vaccines for Dogs

Non-core vaccines are not necessary for many animals and are only recommended when an animal as at risk of contracting the disease due to lifestyle and or where they live.

Dr. Schultz believes the most important non-core vaccine for the dog is the one for kennel cough or more correctly called Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC). This is a complex disease that involves a number of bacteria and viruses which can cause this disease. Bordetella bronchiseptica is the most prevalent of the bacteria that contribute to this disease. A variety of viruses can also contribute to this disease (Canine Parainfluenza, Canine Influenza virus, and several others). A variety of vaccines exist to reduce the severity of kennel cough.

“You cannot prevent kennel cough like you can prevent Distemper. You can prevent Parvo. You can prevent Adeno, ( infectious canine hepatitis). What we do is when we give the kennel cough vaccine we’re hoping to reduce the severity of the disease and we can’t as I say prevent it, as it is so complex.” – Dr. Ron Schultz

Other non-core vaccines for the dog that are important are Leptospirosis (caused by four different serovars/strains). The other disease that is regional for which there is a vaccine is Lyme disease.

These non-core vaccines, unlike the core vaccines, only provide short-term immunity and must be given annually.

Why don’t these vaccines confer long term immunity? It has to do with the immunity of the animal. There are some diseases, with humans too, where once we get the disease we develop a lifelong immunity. An example with this with humans would be measles. But with humans and animals there are also many diseases which we can get over and over again like Lyme disease and the common cold.

Some of the human vaccines that only give short term immunity would be tetanus. Part of the reason dogs require more frequent vaccinations than humans is that they don’t live as long.

Kennel Cough/CIRDC

Most boarding facilities, daycares and training classes require the canine cough vaccine, even though it’s not a core vaccine. Over the past 15 years the vaccines that are used for this complex group of diseases have changed, as well as the protocols for their administration. What in your opinion really works best?

First we need to remember that canine cough/CIRDC is not vaccine preventable. The vaccines only reduce the severity of the disease. Part of that is because we don’t even have vaccines for some of the organisms that cause CIRDC. However, even where we do have vaccines, they are often only 60% to 70% effective. That’s why a dog can be vaccinated and still get CIRDC.

For Bordetella, the most important bacterial component of canine cough, we now have an injectable vaccine which is made from a dead organism, an intranasal vaccine which is a modified live vaccine, and an oral vaccine which is made from a modified live organism. The two live vaccines are more effective than the dead vaccine. Dr. Schultz recommends revaccination on an annual basis and prefers the intranasal vaccine. It not only includes Bordetella but also canine Parainfluenza. Since the normal path of infection for these diseases is via the respiratory system, Dr. Schultz feels the intranasal approach is the best way to administer this vaccine.

Both Bordetella and canine Parainfluenza can also be administered by injection, but Dr. Schultz indicates that neither work as well as the vaccine administered intra-nasally. Some dogs will develop a cough after being given the intranasal vaccine but it is not an infection but is actually an allergic reaction to the Bordetella component of the vaccine. These dogs have not developed canine cough but because they have a hyper sensitivity to the vaccine they are coughing.

 

Vaccinations (6JUL13-7JUL13)

Non-Core Vaccines for Cats and Adverse Reactions to Vaccines

 

In cats there are very few non-core vaccines that are recommended. While Feline Leukemia has previously been recommended annually this has changed to every 2 to 3 years since the publication of the new guidelines. It is now only considered a core vaccine for all kittens because if we get a major part of the population of kittens vaccinated we could reduce or even eliminate Feline Leukemia virus as a cause of disease in the cat. It would require two doses given between 8 and 10 weeks of age and between 12 to 14 weeks of age. Dr. Schultz would recommend a third vaccine again at one year and then no further vaccines for FeLV. They have actually eradicated Feline Leukemia in Switzerland using this type of vaccine program with kittens.

The Feline Immune Deficiency Virus vaccine is not recommended by Dr. Schultz. There is also a Feline Infectious Peritonitis vaccine that is available and most feline practitioners do not recommend this vaccine.

Non-Adjuvanted One Year Rabies Vaccine for Cats

A non-adjuvanted Rabies vaccine that requires annual revaccinations is also available for cats. In addition to the ingredients used to stimulate the immune response many vaccines contain an adjuvant, which is an additional ingredient designed to further stimulate the immune system. Unfortunately, this adjuvant is often the vaccine component which causes an adverse reaction, hence the development of this non-adjuvanted vaccine. This will probably become a three year vaccine in the near future.

Adverse Reactions Caused By Vaccines

Injection site sarcomas, the development of a malignant tumor at a vaccine injection site was one of the reasons vaccines started to be looked at more critically. This was discovered in the mid 1980’s when these lethal tumors started showing up in cats.

Vaccines do have the potential to cause harm, but for years the prevailing attitude was if a vaccine doesn’t help, it least it won’t hurt. Obviously this was not the case and people started to reexamine if their pets should be vaccinated so frequently, much less at all.

In general vaccines are very safe. Less serious adverse reactions can include causing a change in pigmentation at the injection site. The injection site sarcoma was very much a species issue related specifically to the cat. Injection site tumors in the dog are very rare. All of these adverse reactions are determined by the genetics of the animal, not only the vaccine. When breeders observe these vaccination reactions in litters, they need to make sure that those animals producing these litters are not bred again. Doing so only perpetuates the genetics and increases the odds of an adverse reaction.

Autoimmune diseases are genetically controlled but can be triggered by vaccinations. Immune mediated hypersensitivities like anaphylaxis have both a genetic and a vaccine component. Adverse reactions do not always occur the first time a vaccine is administered but can occur after subsequent vaccinations when the animal becomes hypersensitive.

Certain vaccines are more likely to trigger this type of hypersensitivity.  The Leptospirosis vaccine and the injectable Bordetella vaccine have caused hypersensitivity reactions. It’s often not the antigens in the vaccine, the substances that are meant to help the animal, that cause the reactions. Reactions are often caused by other ingredients in the vaccine like Bovine Serum Albumen, adjuvants, etc. By vaccinating only with the vaccines that are absolutely necessary and as infrequently as possible, we can minimize the risk of adverse reactions.

There are many adverse reactions that can occur from a vaccination. Dr. Schultz has a list over a page long of potential vaccine reactions. Even behavioral changes can be the result of an adverse reaction because the immune system is closely integrated with both the nervous and endocrine system. This is why behavior can be affected by a vaccine.

The only reactions that are considered to be caused by a vaccine are those that happen immediately, within 15 minutes to an hour after vaccination. There are other reactions that can happen days, weeks and even months later.

 

Vaccinations (13JUL13-14JUL13)

The Rabies Challenge Fund

Tikken’s Story

Don and Tikken-1with text 600x903Our Golden Retriever Tikken had started exhibiting some severe behavioral changes in the spring of 2000. Her aggression towards other dogs and subsequent obsessive-compulsive shadow and light chasing began shortly after her third Rabies vaccination. Her first Rabies vaccination was in 1997 when she was a puppy. Her second occurred when she was one year old in 1998 and the third occurred in 2000. At the time Maine law required revaccination for Rabies every two years, even though the Rabies vaccine was labeled as offering immunity for three years.

We were not initially aware that Tikken’s behavioral changes were a result of a vaccine reaction.  We consulted with our local veterinarian who provided treatment and then the veterinary behavior clinic at Tufts University when we saw no improvement. When there was still no improvement we consulted with an applied animal behaviorist in Wisconsin who suggested we explore a homeopathic treatment for Tikken’s disease. In the spring of 2001 Tikken was examined by Dr. Judy Herman of the Animal Wellness Center in Augusta, ME and diagnosed as having had a reaction to the Rabies vaccine. She was subsequently treated and cured for a Rabies miasm by Dr. Herman.

For more about Tikken, the Rabies vaccination and here treatment: <click here>.

The Rabies Challenge Fund

This is a project conceived by Kris Christine whose Labrador Retriever, Meadow, had an adverse reaction to a Rabies vaccine. Meadow developed a mast cell sarcoma at the injection site of the Rabies vaccination. Kris actually recruited Dr. Ron Schultz and another veterinarian, Dr. Jean Dodds, also very involved in vaccine work, to start a study to answer the question how long is the duration of immunity from today’s Rabies vaccine used with dogs? Current vaccines are labeled by the USDA as one year or three year vaccines. In some of these cases the vaccines are actually identical.

Because Rabies is a disease that can affect humans in addition to animals it is regulated more strictly than other vaccines. The duration of immunity is actually determined by challenging previously immunized animals with exposure to the disease to see if they survive. No additional challenge tests have been done beyond three years. A goal of the Rabies Challenge Fund is to complete this study at the 5 year and 7 year points.

The Rabies vaccine given today is a killed or non-infectious vaccine. Typically the duration of immunity for vaccines of this type is much shorter than the duration of immunity for modified live vaccines. For example a distemper killed vaccine provides immunity for about a year while a distemper vaccine made with modified live virus has a duration of immunity equal to the lifetime of the animal.

Up until the mid-1980’s, the Rabies vaccine was made with a modified live virus and that vaccine likely would result in lifetime immunity. However, because a few cats that received that vaccine actually developed a Rabies infection after vaccination the USDA no longer allows this vaccine to be used in the US. It is unclear why these cats developed Rabies from the vaccine. It is quite possible that their immune systems were already compromised due to an infection of Feline Leukemia virus.

The goal of the study being conducted by the Rabies Challenge Fund is to determine if the current killed vaccine will offer immunity up to five and seven years.

A new advance in Rabies vaccines is the development of vaccines made with recombinant technology. A feline version of this Rabies vaccine already exists. It behaves like a live vaccine but it cannot actually infect an animal with Rabies. This technology has also been used with the Distemper vaccine for the dog. That vaccine gives as long a duration of immunity as a modified live virus vaccine, up to nine years, which is considered a lifetime. Since there is no live virus in the vaccine it is also safer. It is also safer because recombinant vaccines, unlike killed virus vaccines, do not require the addition of adjuvants to help increase the immune response. It is believed that the hypersensitivity reactions to vaccines may be in part caused by these adjuvants.

The Rabies Challenge Fund is funded entirely by animal owners, not vaccine companies or any other company. The University of Wisconsin has been very generous in reducing the costs of the study since it is being funded by animal owners. Donations have come from individuals, dog clubs and others. The study is not over and fundraising is ongoing. If you are interested in helping fund this project you can find more information at (http://www.rabieschallengefund.org/).

The Rabies Challenge Fund is not only doing research but has also done some very effective lobbying to change the laws in all 50 states so that dogs only need to be revaccinated for Rabies every three years. Prior to that effort, there were many states that required the Rabies vaccine annually.

 

©2015, Donald J. Hanson, All Rights Reserved <Click for Copyright and Use Policy>